It’s essentially a flat sheet with the thickness of a crepe, crinkled into hundreds of folds to make it fit into a compact volume about one-eighth the volume of the cerebral cortex. For this reason, the surface area of the cerebellum was thought to be considerably smaller than that of the cerebral cortex. By using an ultra-high-field MRI machine to scan the brain and custom software to process the resulting images, an SDSU neuroimaging expert discovered the tightly packed folds actually contain a surface area equal to 80% of the cerebral cortex’s surface area. In comparison, the macaque’s cerebellum is about 30% the size of its cortex.The neurons of the cerebellum are 80% of the neurons in the brain, so it shouldn't be a surprise that its surface area is large. Also unsurprising: Science is snobbery. Scientists function by theory and tyranny. (Redundant and synonymous.) They have a POWERFUL disdain for people and animals who function by skills and culture and reality. The cerebellum is the site for SKILLS and REALITY. The cortex is the site for theories and tyranny. Thus everyone knows that the cortex must be INFINITELY larger than the cerebellum, just as everyone knows the scientist is INFINITELY smarter than the plumber or waitress. I made a rather silly analogy on this point two years ago: = = = = = START REPRINT: Reading some of the older pieces at the Abbeville website, and simultaneously working on courseware about the cerebellum.... Dixie is America's cerebellum. Especially true before Madman Lincoln burned it down and killed 1/6 of the country to "prove" a totally delusional "point" and raise Wall Street share values. Dixieland is the source of African influence, bringing Natural Law and morality and rhythm and resonance and muscle memory. Yankeeland is the source of Euro influence (esp Kraut and Frog), bringing verbal "learning" and insane nonsensical theories and genocidal delusions and numerical abstraction. The Yankee cortex believes it can get along without the senses and muscles, so it constantly tries to exterminate the senses and muscles. Of course the entire body can't get along without movement. Dancing and walking and making and cleaning keep the organism functioning. When you hold still for long periods the cerebellum loses sync, and the cortex stops sorting and pruning its memories and ideas. Delusions such as "rights" and "democracy" and LBOs and QE and Bitcoin run wild, destroying the organism along with everything around it. = = = = = END REPRINT. Maybe it's not so silly. Where is the tyranny now, and where are the sane and courageous non-tyrant governors? Most of the courageous non-tyrants are in the cerebellum, where people and skills matter. Florida, SC, Georgia, Tennessee. The worst holocausters are on the west coast, in the frontal lobe of the cortex. Aside from all that, let's go back to the point of the referenced article. Neurologists are just now realizing that their measurement of the SURFACE AREA of a brain part that has been identified and mapped and measured for hundreds of years was WILDLY WRONG. If they can't even measure a macroscopic SURFACE AREA after several hundred years of working with it, why in the fuck should we trust them to measure ANYTHING AT ALL? Hint: CASES and DEATHS.
I refer especially to the uncertainty in which the rustic household habitually lived as to its lot, the suspense, the chronic terror of the savage violence that might burst at any moment on their unoffending heads from the castle above. The feudal regime involved precisely the two things of all others that go farthest to make a hell on earth; on the one hand, the extreme of immobility; the man was nailed to the soil, and emigration utterly impossible; on the other, a high degree of uncertainty as to the continuance of existing conditions. So much is bound to be paid to the Feudal Lord — but he can take all the rest too, if he likes. This is called in so many words the right of prehension. Work away, goodman! And while you are abroad in the fields, the dreaded troop from the heights may swoop down on your house and carry off what it pleases "for the service of the Seigneur." No wonder, if you look at him, the fellow is gloomy over his furrow, and hangs his head! Yes! and he is always like that, with anxious brow and heavy heart, like a man constantly expecting bad news. Is he pondering revenge? Not he; but two thoughts fill his mind, two anxieties trouble him alternately. The first, "In what condition will you find your house when you go back tonight?" The other, "Ah! if only the clod I turn would let me see a treasure underneath! if the kind devil would give me wherewith to buy our freedom!"
Labels: Jackboot stomping forever
Labels: Asked and unanswered
When life started to emerge in the giant oceans around 600 million years ago, the first organisms to populate this ‘geophony’ still had essentially unlimited bandwidth to choose from. Slowly but surely, however, things became more complicated:We have a nice parallel to this process in the history of radio. In 1920 when voice broadcasting began, most transmitters used an untuned spark. Illustration using an early Signal Corps transmitter: The spark created a broad band of frequencies, from near DC up to about 1 Megacycle, with a peak around 500 Kc. All radio stations were sending on this same broad range, with some slight tuning to a couple of narrower subranges. Whenever a ship was using its transmitter to send an SOS, the shore stations that picked it up issued a command via wire telegraph to all broadcasters in the area, and they shut down until the emergency transmission was handled. This situation couldn't last and didn't last long. Transmitter technology found ways to emit a narrowly tuned sine wave on one frequency, and receiver tech found ways to tune in one chosen freq. Both changes had to happen at once, and they certainly DIDN'T happen because cosmic rays were striking the transmitters and causing random deterioration. They happened because ORGANIZED HUMAN INTELLIGENCE saw the problem, understood that it was interfering with the PURPOSE of broadcasting for information and entertainment, and SOLVED the problem with specific advances in materials and circuitry and regulations. LIFE IS PURPOSE.
Krause traded in an extremely successful career as an audio engineer, synthesizer specialist, and songwriter with renowned duo Beaver & Krause for a calling as a field recordist. He set about committing the world around him to tape, eventually creating the perhaps most expansive private collection of animal sounds, today clocking in at 4,500 hours of material by 15,000 different species. It would take several years for Krause to realize that this catalog-approach was fundamentally flawed and only capable of reflecting a tiny fraction of the vast sea of sonic information contained within natural soundscapes. It was in this semi-floating state — that transition between the blissful suspension of awareness and the depths of the total unconsciousness — that I first encountered the transparent weave of creature voices not only as a choir, but as a cohesive sonic event. No longer a cacophony, it became a partitioned collection of vocal organisms – a highly orchestrated acoustic arrangement of insects, spotted hyenas, eagle-owls, African wood-owls, elephants, tree hyrax, distant lions, and several knots of tree frogs and toads. Every distant voice seemed to fit within its own acoustic bandwidth – each one so carefully placed that it reminded me of Mozart’s elegantly structured Symphony no. 41 in C Major, K. 551.Every animal has its own bandwidth, and every animal has specialized ways to hear and produce its own bandwidth. Maybe this wasn't understood by the recording specialists, but it has always been understood DEEPLY by people who deal with cochleas and larynxes and other ways of making and hearing sounds. This is not a discovery. Needless to say, Krause immediately turned his "discovery" to use in boosting anti-Nature causes like the Carbon Cult. MIT wouldn't be praising him to the skies otherwise.
When life started to emerge in the giant oceans around 600 million years ago, the first organisms to populate this ‘geophony’ still had essentially unlimited bandwidth to choose from. Slowly but surely, however, things became more complicated: “At first, when their numbers were relatively small, acoustically sensitive organisms merely needed to filter out the geophonic background in order to perceive other sound-producing organisms within their habitats,” writes Krause. “As the number of species increased and became more complex, they had to be able to hear and process the particular sounds that were relevant to their well-being. Over the course of many glacial periods, especially the recent ones,.....Ready? See it coming now?
For one of his projects, Krause gained permission to record at a forest management area called Lincoln Meadow in the Sierra Nevada mountains, both before and after a lumber company had performed so-called selective loggings.Got it. The purpose of treating sounds as part of a 'biophony' is to cause more forest fires and kill more people. = = = = = Aside from the genocidal crap, let's look specifically at the evolution crap. As always, the big problem with DarwinISM is synchronization. Every single piece of life, and every single function of life, works in synchrony with all other functions. This total 'biophony' in all functions has always been understood by real scientists, even if Krause's subfield didn't know it. BECAUSE all functions work together, random evolution can't possibly happen. The sound producer and sound receiver on each animal work together to produce and receive a specific bandwidth, AND a specific set of patterns with a specific set of meanings. The "cosmic rays producing accidental mutations" must have created the often weird senders AND receivers simultaneously, while simultaneously and synchronously forming the nerve connections to send and receive the patterns, and the higher parts of the nervous system to send and interpret the meanings associated with the patterns. None of these developments would help with survival unless ALL of them developed together ALL THE TIME. Each one would be a complete waste of effort, and would interfere with other functions, if it developed alone. Let's reprint one of those TRULY WEIRD mechanisms, from Sept 2019. = = = = = START REPRINT: Via Eurekalert, new research on one of Nature's extremely "efficient" pieces of design.
The fly Ormia ochracea has evolved directionally sensitive ears to eavesdrop on the communication signals of field crickets. Crickets that are parasitized by these flies face almost certain death. How these flies recognize cricket songs and whether crickets can change their love songs to avoid parasitism is unknown. The Lee Lab of Neural Systems and Behavior at St. Olaf College will apply this new approach to unravel how different geographic populations of O. ochracea have evolved to recognize and prefer species-specific cricket songs that mainly differ in the temporal patterning of sound pulses. Temporal pattern recognition is a common sensory processing task shared by many animals that communicate with acoustic signals, including human speech. Studying temporal pattern recognition in O. ochracea may provide insights into general auditory system function involved in signal recognition. Lee believes that his research into O. ochracea hearing can be harnessed to help improve human hearing by providing engineers with insights into how the natural world has solved common hearing challenges such as recognizing temporally patterned sounds. Engineers have relied on biomimicry to design miniature microphones based on O. ochracea ears, with the hope of applying these microphones to create directional hearing aids.St Olaf is especially strong in speech and hearing, so the implications are shaped toward S&H. This particular study is solid but not groundbreaking. I looked into previous research on these over-designed parasites........... The fly has a bay-window eardrum on the front of her thorax. She uses the two-sided eardrum as a direction-finder, walking in various directions until she homes in on the target cricket's chirp. Birds and mammals have large enough heads that we can use time of arrival and phase differences to determine sound direction accurately. This fly is almost microscopic, so there's no way for her to distinguish time of arrival between the sides. Instead, the two sides of the eardrum are coupled in the middle, giving a differential response to off-angle wavefronts and a non-differential response to straight-on wavefronts. This happens mechanically in direct response to the sound waves, not via neural computation. = = = = = In these animations, the gray blob is the thorax; the red and blue are the bay-window eardrum; and the eardrum is pushing a sort of malleus into three separate neurons: S for signal, R for Right side leading, and L for Left side leading. We can assume that the whole mechanism is sharply tuned to the frequency of the target cricket's chirp, because that's how Nature does things. When the signal is coming from straight ahead, the middle of the eardrum moves, but there's no differential back-and-forth. The S neuron is sensing presence of signal. = = = = = In the second animation the insect has turned toward the left. The high-pressure phase of the sound wave strikes the right window before it strikes the left window. The malleus rocks back and forth, giving the insect an OFF-BEAM warning, just like Loran. So the fly walks forward, using the R and L neurons for negative feedback. When the off-beam indicator is pulsing, she turns one way or the other until it stops. Energy efficiency? A tremendously clever and unique design, used only in this one insect, and only in the adult version of the insect which lives long enough to fuck and lay eggs and die. = = = = = END REPRINT. Continued in next item.
The current icon shows Polistra using a Personal Equation Machine.