Among others, wounded plant cells release VOCs .... These VOCs can prime systemic parts of the locally damaged plants for future attack and trigger resistance to herbivores and pathogens in neighboring plants. This hypothesis is also in line with the observation that the response to sterile damage in plants is usually correlated with the number of damaged cells: treatments such as the application of leaf homogenates, punching multiple holes with needles or squeezing leaves usually elicit detectable responses, whereas cutting off parts of the leaf blades or entire leaves with scissors or razor blades leaves few damaged cells on the plant and, thus, causes no response, or a response that remains below the detection limit.Note the distinction between clean cuts and ragged rips. From Karban:
Some plant responses to herbivore attack are used as cues by the predators and parasites of herbivores as they forage for food. Plants release complex volatile blends that differ in composition depending upon whether they have been attacked and upon the specific nature of the attacker. The predators and parasitoids that are attracted by herbivore-induced volatiles have been shown to increase rates of predation and parasitism and decrease levels of damage inflicted by herbivores under natural field conditions in some, though not all, instances.Note the possibility of attracting 'helpers' as well as parasites. = = = = = A metapattern shows in the reference sections of these articles. Darwin and his immediate contemporaries were highly interested in plant intelligence. Darwin himself did LOTS of work on the subject. After 1900 the subject turned into CHARLATAN! PSEUDOSCIENCE! DENIALISM! SKEPTIC! TROLL! HALLIBURTON! KOCH! KOCH! It wasn't "rediscovered" until 1998 or so. Thus the references include some dates in the 1870s and 1880s, then a long gap, then dates after 1998. This pattern recurs over and over and over and over in science. Simple conclusion: The 20th century was a Dark Age when SCIENCE WAS ABSOLUTELY FORBIDDEN. Only mass-murdering all-consuming bloody psychotic genocide was permitted and INFINITELY funded. Something happened in the 1990s that allowed real science to cautiously pop its head out of the fallout shelter and start moving around again. But only in a few areas like microbiology and plants. In most disciplines real science is still TROLL! HALLIBURTON! KOCH! KOCH! KOCH!
Polistra was named after the original townsite of Manhattan (the one in Kansas). When I was growing up in Manhattan, I spent a lot of time exploring by foot, bike, and car. I discovered the ruins of an old mill along Wildcat Creek, and decided (inaccurately) that it was the remains of the original site of Polistra. Accurate or not, I've always liked the name, with its echoes of Poland (an under-appreciated friend of freedom) and stars. ==== The title icon is explained here. ==== Switchover: This 2007 entry marks a sharp change in worldview from neocon to pure populist. ===== The long illustrated story of Polistra's Dream is a time-travel fable, attempting to answer the dangerous revision of New Deal history propagated by Amity Shlaes. The Dream has 8 episodes, linked in a chain from the first. This entry explains the Shlaes connection.